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Motivational and personal differences of students with dissimilar degrees of self-realization in higher school education

Effective training of competent specialists in a contemporary university requires the disclosure of personal abilities and internal potential of students who realize themselves as subjects of learning activity. The problem of studying the psychological factors of enhancing learning and self-realization of students in the educational space is of particular relevance. The hypothesis of the study was the assumption about the influence of motivational, personal-orientation and life-sense factors on the level of students’ self-realization in university education.

The study involved 224 students of the 4-5th courses from Belgorod National Research University and Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov. The author’s questionnaire for identifying the degree of students’ self-realization in learning, as well as questionnaires and tests known in psychology for identification of motivational, personal and sense-purpose characteristics, served as diagnostic tools. The results were processed using cluster analysis, Student’s t-test and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.

As a result it turned out that students with varying degrees of self-realization in education had differences in personal characteristics. Students with stable self-realization had higher scores for such motivational parameters as: attitude to learning (t = 7.056, p ≤ 0.001), self-expression need (t = 3.08, p = 0.003), satisfaction of achievements (t = 5.33, p ≤ 0.001). Meanwhile, students with low self-realization had an increased safety need (t = 2.26, p = 0.016). According to personal orientations and self-attitude, students with articulated self-realization were characterized by higher scores in terms of self-regard (t = 2.77, p = 0.007), self-management (t = 4.34, p ≤ 0.001), reflected self-attitude (t = 3.18, p = 0.002) and self-esteem (t = 3.02, p = 0.005). With regard to life-sense orientations, students with stable self-realization were distinguished by higher values of internal locus of control t = 4.50, p ≤ 0.001), life management (t = 4.07, p ≤ 0,001), life productivity (t = 3.84, p ≤ 0.001) and interesting eventful life (t = 3.80, p ≤ 0.001).

Based on the correlation analysis, a number of positive relationships of self-realization markers in according to the questionnaire with personal characteristics of students were revealed. A positive connection was remarked between attitude to learning and following markers: the intention to work intensively in the classes (r = 0.52, p ≤ 0.01), recognizing of the usefulness of learning for oneself (r = 0.50, p ≤ 0.01), minimal learning frustration (r = 0.49, p ≤ 0.01). Satisfaction of knowledge correlated with markers of achieving a better self-knowledge (r = 0.49, p ≤ 0.01) and developing of personal abilities (r = 0.48, p ≤ 0.01). Self-management correlates with marker of achieving a deeper self-understanding (r = 0.47, p ≤ 0.01). Thus, the study made it possible to present the differentiated personal characteristics of students with different levels of self-realization in learning.

The results can be useful for improving university practice in creating psychological and pedagogical conditions for a more complete students’ self-realization in the training process.

Keywords: self-realization, university students, learning process, survey, motivational differences, dispositional orientations, self-attitude, life-purpose characteristics

For Reference: Shutenko, A. I., Shutenko, E. N., Derevyanko, Ju. P., Kanishcheva, M. A., Kovtun, Ju. J., & Lokteva, A. V. (2020). Motivational and personal differences of students with dissimilar degrees of self-realization in higher school education. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 48 (6), 345-357. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.6.27

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Information about the authors:

Andrey I. Shutenko (Russia, Belgorod) - PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Scientific Fellow, Institute of Economics and Management. Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G. Shukhov. E-mail: avalonbel@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8385-3660. Scopus ID: 55916050800

Elena N. Shutenko (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: shutenko@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4499-2756. Scopus ID: 56809459300

Julia P. Derevyanko (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: geyman@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0003-1477-0455. Scopus ID: 57190227722

Marina A. Kanishcheva (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: marrajj@yandex.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8611-9931. Scopus ID: 57190225196

Julia J. Kovtun (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: kovtun_31@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7770-4191. Scopus ID: 57190228457

Anna V. Lokteva (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: Afanasjeva@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7937-6216. Scopus ID: 56275893700

Development of students’ constructive self-consciousness experience in psychodrama process

The ongoing socio-cultural deformations mostly negatively affect the young generation, forming distorted forms of identity and self-consciousness. The initial hypothesis of the study was that the development of students’ full-fledged self-consciousness can be facilitated by the process of their versatile self-disclosure and self-expression in the reference environment of the group, and this process can be successfully modeled using the psychodrama method. The purpose of the study was to determine the logic and techniques of building a psychodramatic process focused on improving self-awareness of students.

The study was based on the role methodology of self-consciousness and the psychodrama method as a practice of replaying personally significant situations in group interaction. The study involved 131 first-year students of Belgorod National Research University. The questionnaires to identify self-attitudes and various aspects of the Self-concept served as diagnostic tools. The results were processed using the paired Student’s t-test and Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation.

As a result, the study revealed the content of psychodramatic process, the technology of its building and its forms. The essence of this work is to create favorable conditions for students’ self-realization in the reference social environment. The positive influence of psychodrama on the sphere of students’ self-consciousness was shown. In particular, the constructive images in their Self-concept were developing; their self-respect was strengthening due to the growth of reflected self-attitude (t=9.11, p ≤ 0.01) and self-confidence (t=8.56, p ≤ 0.01), autosympathy was increasing through the growth of self-value (t=9.29, p ≤ 0.01) and self-acceptance (t=8.41, p ≤ 0.01), as well as their negative feelings towards themselves were overcoming by reducing inner conflict (t= –8.56, p ≤ 0.01) and self-blame (t= –8.04, p ≤ 0.01). The performed correlation analysis revealed the connection between the growth of indicators of self-knowledge and self-attitude among students in psychodrama process. Namely, a positive relationship was found between an increase in the cognitive complexity of the self-concept and an increase in self-acceptance (r=0.53, p ≤ 0.01) and reflected self-attitude (r=0.51, p ≤ 0.01). The contrast of self-representations growth is positively connected with an increase of reflected self-attitude (r=0.58, p ≤ 0.01) and self-acceptance (r=0.55, p ≤ 0.01), as well as with a decrease of inner conflict (r = –0.45, p ≤ 0.01). The growth of self-concept integrity positively correlates with an increase of self-acceptance (r=0.57, p ≤ 0.01), reflected self-attitude (r =0.54, p ≤ 0.01) and closeness (r=0.53, p ≤ 0.01), as well as with a reduce of inner conflict ( r= –0.51, p ≤ 0.01) and self-blame (r= –0.48, p ≤ 0.01). A number of psychodrama modifications were proposed: long-term versatile building of a safe and confiding relationship space; predominance of non-verbal ways of interaction; saturation with relaxing and imaginative techniques; introspective form of psychodramatic action with elements of sociodrama; inclusion of “Self-centered” topics in the content of classes; targeted training of identification feedback etc.

The results revealed a unique mechanism of psychodrama for developing the students’ self-consciousness. This is the mechanism of symbolic-metaphorical replaying of a personally significant situation with the active participation of the reference group in creating a versatile positive feedback about the productive ways of the individual’s self-manifestation. The proposed modifications and techniques of psychodrama can be applied in practical work on the psychological support of students.

Keywords: students, self-consciousness, psychodrama, self-realization, self-attitude, Self-concept, phases and techniques of psychodrama

For Reference: Shutenko, E. N., Derevyanko, Ju. P., Kanishcheva, M. A., Kovtun, Ju. J., & Lokteva, A. V. (2020). Development of students’ constructive self-consciousness experience in psychodrama process. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 47 (5), 304-318. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.5.21

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Information about the authors:

Elena N. Shutenko (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: shutenko@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4499-2756. Scopus ID: 56809459300

Julia P. Derevyanko (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: geyman@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0003-1477-0455. Scopus ID: 57190227722

Marina A. Kanishcheva (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: marrajj@yandex.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8611-9931. Scopus ID: 57190225196

Julia J. Kovtun (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: kovtun_31@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7770-4191. Scopus ID: 57190228457

Anna V. Lokteva (Russia, Belgorod) - Associate Professor, PhD in Psychology, Department of the General and Clinical Psychology. Belgorod National Research University. E-mail: Afanasjeva@bsu.edu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7937-6216. Scopus ID: 56275893700