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The pedagogical teaching of Immanuel Kant in the light of his philosophical anthropology

Introduction. The humanistic understanding of the goals and objectives of upbringing and education presupposes the expediency and fruitfulness of the fundamental idea of the comprehensive and harmonious development of human. The task of forming a personality comes to the fore here, and not just transferring a certain amount of knowledge and skills to a student.

One of the founders of this approach in upbringing and education is Immanuel Kant (1724–1824), which makes the analysis of his philosophical and pedagogical views relevant. The object of study in the article is the critical philosophy he created in unity with other parts of his system, and the subject is his pedagogical legacy. The purpose of the work is to analyze the main provisions of the concept of upbringing and education of Kant in the light of the project of philosophical anthropology developed by him, to determine the relationship between his pedagogy and anthropology.

Materials and methods. The general basis of the study was the method of philosophical and anthropological reconstruction and the method of content-semantic interpretation, through which the analysis of the pedagogy of the German thinker was carried out. The work also used the modeling method and the method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete.

Research results. Kant created pedagogical doctrine on the basis of the doctrine of human, the essence of which lies in the reason. The philosopher saw the rationale for the need for upbringing and education in morality. The goal of the development of society is the moral improvement of mankind on the basis of the development of abilities given by nature in the individual. Schooling refers to physical upbringing and involves the development of bodily properties and mental abilities of individuals; it is aimed at acquiring knowledge, developing skills and acquiring skills. Education refers to practical upbringing; it is aimed at the development of morality and the spiritual world of the individual.

The main goal of upbringing is the formation of a person as a rationally thinking and freely acting member of society. Therefore, upbringing, together with care and discipline, includes education and training. The task of school-mechanical education is the acquisition of skills useful for life, the task of pragmatic education is the achievement of rationality, the task of moral education is the formation of morality.

Conclusion. Contained in the three “Critiques”, the ideal of “educational human”, as a comprehensive and harmonious moral personality, is based on his understanding as a rational, free and creative being. The programs of transcendental anthropology, moral anthropology and empirical anthropology developed by Kant were implemented by him in the conceptual models of “physiological human science” (the study of what nature makes of a person) and “pragmatic human science” (the study of what he, as a free being, makes of himself), which are steps on the way to building a holistic doctrine of human.

But the philosophical anthropology of the Koenigsberg scientist is not a “concrete human science”, but rather his idea, a project where the doctrine of upbringing and education in individual development and in the course of social history serves as the basis for meaningful knowledge about a human as a representative of the genus Homo sapiens with reason.

Keywords: Immanuel Kant, pedagogy, transcendentalism, theoretical reason, practical reason, morality, human, personality, upbringing, training, education, philosophical anthropology

For Reference: Burkhanov, R. A., & Kosenok, S. M. (2022). The pedagogical teaching of Immanuel Kant in the light of his philosophical anthropology. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 60 (6), 491-505. doi: 10.32744/pse.2022.6.29

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Information about the authors:

Rafael A. Burkhanov (Russia, Surgut) - Professor, Dr. Sci. (Philosophy), Head of the Philosophy and Law Department. Surgut State University. E-mail: ra.nvarta@gmail.com. ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4910-3759 

Sergei M. Kosenok (Russia, Surgut) - Rector, Professor, Doctor of pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy of Professional and Additional Education. Surgut State University. E-mail: ksm@surgu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2262-9323

Features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century

The problem of forming spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century is of theoretical interest and practical value for Russian teachers in terms of using the experience accumulated by foreign colleagues in the course of reforming the national school. The hypothesis of the study was that the various forms of work practiced by teachers of the two countries – the GDR and the FRG, – during this period contributed to the formation of spiritual and moral values among the youth of the two German states.

The following research methods were used: literature analysis, scientific and pedagogical interpretation of information contained in sources; comparative method; axiological method that allows to identify the positive content in the scientific subject.

Main results of the study. The fundamental difference in socio-political and ideological attitudes that took place in the GDR and the FRG in 1949-1989 determined to a decisive extent the choice of forms and content of educational work carried out in educational institutions in both countries. In the GDR, there was a single comprehensive public school, which was under the full ideological and administrative control of the ruling Socialist United Party of Germany. Special attention was paid to educating the younger generation in the spirit of devotion to the ideals of socialism, rejection of religion and the values of bourgeois society. The Union of Free German Youth and the children’s pioneer organization named after Ernst Telman were actively used in the process of socialist education of young people. At the same time, they actually copied the forms and methods of work of the corresponding organizations that operated in the USSR, – the Komsomol and the Lenin Pioneer organization. In Germany, on the contrary, there was a significant number of types of secondary educational institutions, many of which were non-governmental: private, Waldorf, Catholic and Evangelical, etc. Ideological education, aimed, among other things, at the assimilation of spiritual and moral values, was carried out mainly at school, in accordance with the guidelines adopted in this educational institution.

The study allowed us to characterize the features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century. The significance of the results obtained is that they to a certain extent factual enrich modern Russian historical and pedagogical science.

The main conclusion of the study is that in the GDR, the concept of the goal of education was inextricably linked with collective interests and orientation to the socialist ideology, while the liberal-democratic ideology in the FRG gave absolute priority to the individual over the collective. A scientifically formulated study of this approach provides a perspective for further research.

Keywords: pedagogy, education, the GDR, the FRG, the socialist unity party of Germany, the Telman Pioneer organization, Waldorf pedagogy

For Reference: Merkulova, I. A., & Pomelov, V. B. (2021). Features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 49 (1), 478-490. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.1.33

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Irina A. Merkulova (Russia, Kirov) - Associate Professor, PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, Dean of the Faculty of International Education of the Institute of Social Sciences and Humanities. Vyatka State University. E-mail: irinamerkulova@rambler.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9530-2244. Scopus ID: 57194555359

Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of the Pedagogy Department of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus ID: 57200437621. ReseacherID: AAS-2608-2020

Universalism versus professionalism as results of education

«The mind (talent, ability, etc.) is a natural status of a person, a norm, not an exception» (E. V. Ilienkov) – namely this kind of reflection of Russian philosophers, but with a question mark only, can be represented as some background and/or hypothesis of the present study of the results of education in a modern post-industrial society. Is the model of education proposed in the modern Russian pedagogy based on the competence approach a relevant, sufficient and viable basis for a “normative” type of the personality necessary for the society? The analysis of the ratio of universal and professional knowledge, universalism and professionalism in education was carried out using the philosophical paradigms of universality and discreteness, the Renaissance ideal of a many-sided person, as well as the ideas of a universal and distracted person. To solve this problem, we used the descriptive method, methods of analysis and synthesis in the formation of judgments; a sociological range of the methodology of the activity approach and concepts of social types of the personality. As a result, the need to bring the inner world of a person, the system of his knowledge and competencies in line with the increased consistency and complexity of the modern world is shown. It is proved that such an opportunity is provided by the system of anthropological foundations, traditions of fundamental nature and universality of the national pedagogy, and allows organically mastering the best achievements of the Western competence model of education.

Key words: universalism, professionalism, education, philosophy, pedagogy, competence approach, personality

For Reference: Lavrukhina, I. M., & Glushko, I. V. (2019). Universalism versus professionalism as results of education. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 41 (5), 10-19. doi: 10.32744/pse.2019.5.1

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Information about the authors:

Irina M. Lavrukhina (Russia, Zernograd) - Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanities and Foreign Languages. Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute. Don State Agrarian University. E-mail: Lavruhina_i@inbox.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7631-7667

Irina V. Glushko (Russia, Zernograd) - Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Humanities and Foreign Languages. Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute. Don State Agrarian University. E-mail: glu-ir@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0107-025X