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Pedagogy of cooperation of the 1980s as an innovative practice

Introduction. The relevance of the research topic lies in the possibility of using the axiological and didactic potential of the pedagogy of cooperation in modern domestic educational practice. The purpose of the article is to give a scientific assessment of the movement of innovative teachers that arose in the second half of the 1980s in the USSR on the wave of «perestroika» and the reform of the domestic general educational and vocational schools.

Materials and methods. The author uses an axiological approach that allows identifying the most valuable content in the studied phenomenon that can enter the main fund of science. Methods – a retrospective and comparative historical analysis of the works of innovative teachers, a method of analytical grouping of the studied material, as well as a historical and typological method that allows you to define the main content lines of the pedagogical phenomenon under consideration.

Results. The socio-political reasons that led to the emergence of the movement of innovative teachers in the 1980s are characterized. The most important of them were state resolutions that proclaimed the mandatory nature of general secondary education, which, in turn, stimulated the research search of the best teachers in the country in the direction of finding new forms and methods of educational practice. The main ideas of the pedagogy of cooperation are briefly described. These include the ideas of the content of the child’s personality and personal approach to him, the development of his creative and performing abilities, the ideas of a difficult goal, support in learning, quick assessment of student work, free choice of the type of task by the child. The innovative teachers attached great importance to the implementation in practice of their work of the ideas of «reincarnation of a child into a teacher», advance in the study of educational material, teaching in large blocks, as well as the ideas of the children’s half of the day, the selection of the appropriate form of the lesson, introspection, creating an intellectual background of the class, collective creative education, creative productive work, creative self-management, self-respect and self-regulation, the uniqueness of each child, teacher-student dialogue, cooperation with parents and colleagues.

Conclusion. The scientific and practical heritage of the founders of the pedagogy of cooperation is of considerable value for education and pedagogy, and deserves further study.

Keywords: teachers-innovators, «Teacher’s Newspaper», «Peredelkino manifesto», pedagogy of cooperation, Shatalov, Amonashvili, school reform, advanced pedagogical experience, innovation in pedagogy

For Reference: Pomelov, V. B. (2021). Pedagogy of cooperation of the 1980s as an innovative practice. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 53 (5), 620-630. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.5.42

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Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus Author ID: 57200437621. ReseacherID: AAS-2608-2020

The William Heard Kilpatrick’s Project Method: on the 150th anniversary of the American educator

Introduction. The project method has been actively used as an important form of organizing the practice of teaching in the educational systems of many countries around the world over the past hundred years. This method is increasingly being used in our country. The very concept of «project method» is invariably associated with the name of its author and popularizer, a major American educator of the late XIX – first half of the XXth centuries. William Heard Kilpatrick (1871-1965). The purpose of the issue is to study the circumstances of the process of formation of W. H. Kilpatrick as a didactic scientist and the creation of a method of projects by him and his associates.

Materials and methods. The leading research methods are the analysis of scientific historical and pedagogical literature and other sources, biographical and historical methods, as well as an axiological approach aimed at identifying the value content of the studied scientific subject.

Results. The author traces the evolution of W. H. Kilpatrick’s views, the stages of his formation as a didactic scientist and a practical teacher. Little-known facts of his biography, which were not previously reflected in the Russian historical and pedagogical literature, are given. Special attention is paid to the disclosure of the essence of the proposed method of projects, which is widely used in pedagogy and education in many countries of the world. The educational system of W. H. Kilpatrick’s «experimentalism» was based on the philosophy of pragmatism and the psychology of behaviorism. Instead of a traditional school, he proposed to build a so-called «educational process», which he considered as the organization of children’s activities in a social environment focused on enriching their individual experience. Training according to the project method was to be carried out through the organization of target acts, which included the formulation of the problem, the preparation of a plan for its implementation and the assessment of implementation. The use of these projects, according to W. H. Kilpatrick, wouldn’t only prepare the child for life after school, but also help him organize his life in the present. Data on the teacher E. Collings, who also worked on the problem of developing the project method, is included. The project classifications are given according to E. Collings and W. H. Kilpatrick. The author shows the scientific relations of W. H. Kilpatrick with a number of well-known teachers-contemporaries (J. Dewey, E. L. Thorndike, E. Collings, F. W. Parker, C. DeGarmo, etc.).

Conclusion. The scientific novelty of the study consists in a meaningful analysis of the views of W. H. Kilpatrick. The legitimacy of the very concept of the project method has long been beyond doubt among serious researchers and practitioners of education. At present, the project method has actually received a rebirth in various spheres of social and industrial life. The main conclusion of the article: the didactic legacy of this major American teacher is significant. It contains a value potential, requires further full-fledged study and deserves active use in modern domestic education.

Keywords: William Heard Kilpatrick, Mercer University, White Plains, project method, Edward Collings, John Dewey, Charles DeGarmo, Peter Petersen

For Reference: Pomelov, V. B. (2021). The William Heard Kilpatrick’s Project Method: on the 150th anniversary of the American educator. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 52 (4), 436-447. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.4.29

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Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus Author ID: 57200437621.

The activities of outstanding educators Stefan of Perm and Trifon of Vyatka on the development of education of the population of the Vyatka-Kama region

Introduction. The problem of studying the educational efforts of the first enlighteners of the Russian Land is of relevance, theoretical interest and practical value for teachers in terms of forming spiritual and moral values among the younger generation, familiarizing young people with remarkable examples of selfless activity of the founders of education in the enlightenment of their people.

The purpose of the study is to characterize the main directions of educational efforts of Stefan Permsky and Trifon Vyatsky.

Materials and methods. To achieve the aim of the research the author used the following scientific methods: analysis of the historical literature, scientific and pedagogical interpretation of the information contained in the sources; comparative and historical methods; axiological approach, which allows to identify the positive content in the scientific material to be studied.

The results of the study. The historical importance of the invention of the first alphabet by Stefan Permsky for the Komi people is proved. Its use in the course of church services represented the first attempt to educate and, at the same time, convert this northern people to Christianity, and contributed to the spread of literacy and Orthodoxy in the Vyatka-Kama region as a whole. Tryphon Vyatsky is shown as the builder of Orthodox churches, which became, at his command, a repository of books and written documents, and this, in turn, stimulated the initial development of the letter «on Vyatka». Tryphon Vyatsky contributed to the spread of book literacy and moral development, first of local priests, and then of the entire population of the region. He showed himself as a strict zealot of Orthodox morality, who fought against the spread of bad habits. Both enlighteners are shown as spiritual mentors and guardians of order and morality. Their educational activities laid the foundation for the further development of education in the Vyatka-Kama region.

Conclusion. The initial stage of the development of education in the region under consideration was carried out thanks to the ascetic efforts of the first educators, whose example up to the present time serves as a moral guide for the modern generation of teachers of the Vyatka-Kama Region.

Keywords: Vyatka-Kama region, Stefan Permsky, Tryphon Vyatsky, Komi-Zyryansky alphabet, Epiphanius the Wise, Ust-Vym settlement, Khlynov city

For Reference: Pomelov, V. B. (2021). The activities of outstanding educators Stefan of Perm and Trifon of Vyatka on the development of education of the population of the Vyatka-Kama region. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 51 (3), 439-450. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.3.31

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Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus ID: 57200437621. Reseacher ID: AAS-2608-2020

The pedagogical concept «Jena-plan» of P. Petersen

At present, the educational concept «Jena-plan» of a German scholar Peter Petersen (1884-1952) has become widespread in the educational systems of some European countries. It is a technology that aims to change the approach to the organization of education and upbringing of children radically. Two tasks are solved in the issue: to reveal the less known biographical data of P. Petersen, and to characterize the most important features of the pedagogical concept put forward by him. The purpose of the study is to determine its significance in the history of European education. The following methods were used: biographical and retrospective analysis, direct observation in some schools in Germany and the Chech Republic, that use «Jena-Plan» in their practice, as well as an axiological approach.

Main results. The concept «Jena-plan» has become quite widespread due to its didactic effectiveness, humanistic orientation and compliance with the age and individual characteristics of children. The technology of using the concept of Peter Petersen on the example of one of the schools in Germany is revealed in the issue. The method of applying the concept in practice, – on the example of «trunk group» and «trunk table» («Stammgruppe» and «Stammtisch» in German), – is shown. The main conclusion of the research is that «Jena-plan» has the prospect of further development in the modern European school. This statement is confirmed by the regular holding of conferences of the movement of adherents of the «Jena Plan», a significant number of schools that fully or partially use the provisions of this concept. Some positive features of this concept can also be used in domestic education.

Keywords: German pedagogy in the XXth century, reform pedagogy, P. Petersen, the concept of «Jena-plan», the use of «Jena-Plan» in the modern European school

For Reference: Pomelov, V. B. (2021). The pedagogical concept «Jena-plan» of P. Petersen. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 50 (2), 404-414. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.2.28

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Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogy, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy, Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus ID: 57200437621. Reseacher ID: AAS-2608-2020

Features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century

The problem of forming spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century is of theoretical interest and practical value for Russian teachers in terms of using the experience accumulated by foreign colleagues in the course of reforming the national school. The hypothesis of the study was that the various forms of work practiced by teachers of the two countries – the GDR and the FRG, – during this period contributed to the formation of spiritual and moral values among the youth of the two German states.

The following research methods were used: literature analysis, scientific and pedagogical interpretation of information contained in sources; comparative method; axiological method that allows to identify the positive content in the scientific subject.

Main results of the study. The fundamental difference in socio-political and ideological attitudes that took place in the GDR and the FRG in 1949-1989 determined to a decisive extent the choice of forms and content of educational work carried out in educational institutions in both countries. In the GDR, there was a single comprehensive public school, which was under the full ideological and administrative control of the ruling Socialist United Party of Germany. Special attention was paid to educating the younger generation in the spirit of devotion to the ideals of socialism, rejection of religion and the values of bourgeois society. The Union of Free German Youth and the children’s pioneer organization named after Ernst Telman were actively used in the process of socialist education of young people. At the same time, they actually copied the forms and methods of work of the corresponding organizations that operated in the USSR, – the Komsomol and the Lenin Pioneer organization. In Germany, on the contrary, there was a significant number of types of secondary educational institutions, many of which were non-governmental: private, Waldorf, Catholic and Evangelical, etc. Ideological education, aimed, among other things, at the assimilation of spiritual and moral values, was carried out mainly at school, in accordance with the guidelines adopted in this educational institution.

The study allowed us to characterize the features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century. The significance of the results obtained is that they to a certain extent factual enrich modern Russian historical and pedagogical science.

The main conclusion of the study is that in the GDR, the concept of the goal of education was inextricably linked with collective interests and orientation to the socialist ideology, while the liberal-democratic ideology in the FRG gave absolute priority to the individual over the collective. A scientifically formulated study of this approach provides a perspective for further research.

Keywords: pedagogy, education, the GDR, the FRG, the socialist unity party of Germany, the Telman Pioneer organization, Waldorf pedagogy

For Reference: Merkulova, I. A., & Pomelov, V. B. (2021). Features of the formation of spiritual and moral values in the educational practice of Germany in the second half of the twentieth century. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 49 (1), 478-490. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.1.33

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Irina A. Merkulova (Russia, Kirov) - Associate Professor, PhD in Pedagogical Sciences, Dean of the Faculty of International Education of the Institute of Social Sciences and Humanities. Vyatka State University. E-mail: irinamerkulova@rambler.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9530-2244. Scopus ID: 57194555359

Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of the Pedagogy Department of the Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745. Scopus ID: 57200437621. ReseacherID: AAS-2608-2020

Становление и развитие научно-исследовательской работы физических кафедр в Калининградском госуниверситете в 1960-1980 годы

Целью данного исследования являлось изучение процесса становления и развития научно-исследовательской работы ученых-физиков в региональном университете Калининграда на основе впервые вводимых в оборот архивных материалов. Опыт, накопленный преподавателями университета в советский период, является актуальным в настоящее время для анализа путей совершенствования физического образования.

В данном педагогическом исследовании применялся исторический подход, предполагающий изучение рассматриваемого явления в развитии.

Показана роль профессорско-преподавательского состава в организации научной работы, соответствующей уровню высшей школы. Представители различных научных школ Советского Союза, приехавшие в Калининградский университет, возникший на базе педагогического института, влились в ряды преподавателей вуза. В короткие сроки на физико-математическом факультете в соответствии с университетским учебным планом совместными усилиями была создана лабораторная база, состоящая из учебных и научно-исследовательских установок.

В университете появились научные коллективы и комплексные темы исследования. Повысилась публикационная активность ученых-физиков. Научные разработки легли в основу кандидатских и докторский диссертаций, наметилась динамика роста ученых высокой квалификации. Появились хоздоговорные работы, установились деловые связи с промышленными и научными предприятиями. Ученые-физики заняли ведущие позиции в университете по значимости тематики и объемам научных разработок. Студенты-физики вовлекались в научный процесс. Тематика их квалификационных работ отличалась актуальностью и новизной, многие работы рекомендовались к внедрению в производство.

Анализ работы преподавателей-физиков в эти годы показал, что интеграция научно-исследовательского и учебного процессов положительно сказалась на развитии физического образования в университете. Традиции, заложенные физиками советского периода, явились фундаментом устойчивого развития вуза в последующие годы.

Ключевые слова: научно-исследовательская работа, физика, Калининградский государственный университет, исторический подход

Ссылка для цитирования: Корнева И. П. Становление и развитие научно-исследовательской работы физических кафедр в Калининградском госуниверситете в 1960-1980 годы // Перспективы науки и образования. 2020. № 4 (46). С. 398-408. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.4.28

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Корнева Ирина Павловна (Россия, Калининград) - Доцент, кандидат технических наук, профессор секции прикладной физики. Балтийская государственная академия рыбопромыслового флота. E-mail: ipk05@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6523-724X. Scopus ID: 9274608000

The activities of the educators in Russia in the first half of the XVIII-th century

Today’s educational situation in Russia is characterized by active efforts of native teachers and officials to improve national educational system. Hence are numerous attempts of the creative rethinking of all those valuable successes, that had been reached by predecessors. In this regard, educational reform of the first quarter of the XVIII-th century is of considerable interest for modern educators. This reform was carried out by the Emperor Peter I and his associates. Peter I has undertaken a number of progressive steps in order to establish various types of schools in the cities as well as in provincial towns and villages. First libraries, typographies, Academy of sciences were established due to his decrees. The article presents the progressive educational efforts of the Bishop Lavrenty Gorka (1671-1733), the founder of the first Slav-Latin school in the town of Hlynov, in the Vyatka province. The article is aimed to show in what way the initial phase of the process of enlightenment in rural Russia was carried out. Much attention in the article is devoted to the characteristic of socio-political conditions which influenced the initial stage of the process of the enlightenment, and to the role of the Emperor Peter I in the process of education in Russia, as well as to the description of difficulties which the first educators had to overcome. The Vyatka province was a remote region of the Russian Empire in the XVIII-th century, and as well as all the other Russian regions of that time, it has suffered heavily from the illiteracy of its population. Gorka had to face a lot of difficulties: lack of textbooks, teachers, finance, facilities, etc. But the most difficult obstacle was the stubborn resistance of the local clergy; practically all the local priests were almost illiterate, and they didn’t want to get well educated young rivals. Gorka made straightforward preparations for opening the first school in the Vyatka province. He succeeded in inviting well-educated teachers to Hlynov. A school library was established. Gorka was successful in gathering 400 pupils. He paid much attention to the rational organization of the school routine. After his death the succeeding Vyatka Bishops Veniamin Sahnovsky, Varlaam Skamnizky and Antony Illiashevich promoted the development of education in Hlynov. These were the first educators of the Vyatka province.

Key words: The XVIII-th century, the Emperor Peter I, the Vyatka province, Lavrenty Gorka, the Hlynov Slav-Latin school

For Reference: Pomelov, V. B. (2020). The activities of the educators in Russia in the first half of the XVIII-th century. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 45 (3), 412-425. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.3.30

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Vladimir B. Pomelov (Russia, Kirov) - Professor, Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Pedagogy. Vyatka State University. E-mail: vladimirpomelov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3813-7745

Bulgarian teachers in Ploiesti in the 1860s-1870s

The historical events and personalities of the second half of the 19th century related to the organization of the new Bulgarian education outside the territories inhabited by ethnic Bulgarians have not yet been fully studied. The Romanian city of Ploiesti, in which the Bulgarian diaspora had made active efforts in the period immediately before the Liberation of Bulgaria, was chosen for the analysis and research.

The main research methods are as follows: cultural and historical retrospection, the biographical method, historical and pedagogical reconstruction of personalities and events.

The results clearly indicate that Bulgarian teachers in Ploiesti in the 1860s-1870s were the spiritual leaders of their fellow citizens; they set a personal example, worthy of emulation, both in literature and enlightenment and in their revolutionary activity; contributed to the development of education; preserved the Bulgarian national spirit and educated the younger generation in the spirit of patriotism.

The conclusions made as a result of the study make it possible to unite these teachers under one denominator, despite the difference in age, education, their cultural and ideological achievements. They are sincere patriots who have left their mark on the Bulgarian national liberation movement. Some of them played a key role in the Bulgarian social and political life in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Key words: teachers, Romania, the Bulgarian diaspora, training, enlightenment

For Reference: Terzieva, M. T. (2020). Bulgarian teachers in Ploiesti in the 1860s-1870s. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 44 (2), 382-388. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.2.30

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Margarita T. Terzieva (Burgas, Bulgaria) - Professor, Doctor of Education. Director of the Training and Information Center. University "Prof. Dr. Assen Zlatarov". E-mail: mtterzieva@gmail.com

Социально-педагогическая терминология в испанском педагогическом дискурсе конца ХІХ – первой трети ХХ века

Актуальность темы обусловлена необходимостью изучения иностранного исторического и современного опыта социальной педагогики для понимания сложных процессов категоризации научного педагогического знания. На материале своеобразного историко-педагогического источника – испанского педагогического дискурса конца ХІХ – первой трети ХХ в. выяснялась вся совокупность понятий и категорий, на основе которой осуществлялась концептуализация социальной педагогики как самостоятельного научного знания.

В процессе исследования испанского педагогического дискурса (конец ХІХ – первая треть ХХ в.) применялись специфические научные методы – педагогико-ретроспективный, метод педагогической реконструкции, метод герменевтики.

Установлено, что в испанском педагогическом дискурсе (конец ХІХ – первая треть ХХ в.) широко использовались такие специальные социально-педагогические термины, как “социальное воспитание”, “солидарность” (“солидарное воспитание”), “народное просвещение”, “единая школа”, “университетское расширение”, “социальная защита детства”. Доказано, что процесс концептуализации социальной педагогики в Испании был прежде всего связан с разворачиванием в конце ХІХ в. мощного регенерационистского интеллектуального движения.

Очерчены тенденции категоризации социальной педагогики в конце ХІХ – первой трети ХХ в. Представлены и разъяснены субъективные позиции испанских педагогов (Ф. дель Рио Уррути, Р. Руиса Амадо, Л. Паласиоса Морини, А. Ройо Вильяновы и др.) касательно толкования специальных социально-педагогических терминов – “социальное воспитание” и “солидарное воспитание”.

Ключевые слова: социальная педагогика, социально-педагогическая терминология, концептуализация, категоризация, испанский педагогический дискурс, испанские педагоги, социальное воспитание

Ссылка для цитирования: Зайченко Н. И. Социально-педагогическая терминология в испанском педагогическом дискурсе конца ХІХ – первой трети ХХ века // Перспективы науки и образования. 2020. № 1 (43). С. 366-378. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.1.26

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Информация об авторах:

Зайченко Наталия Ивановна (Украина, г. Киев) - Доктор педагогических наук, профессор кафедры общей и прикладной психологии. Институт экологии экономики и права (г. Киев). E-mail: nizzagranada2019@gmail.com. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4961-4711

“Combating bourgeois pseudoscience”: a campaign for national priorities in science and technology and Soviet higher education institutions

Studying the history of science and engineering is an important component of modern higher education, which is recognized by both the professional community and the authorities. This makes relevant a retrospective analysis of the teaching experience of this discipline, which nowadays can contribute to its detailed study. One of the key issues in this context is the influence of establishment and ideologization in the Soviet period. In particular, campaign aimed at combating kowtowing to Western science which was launched in the late Stalin period to fight for national priorities in science and technology is meant. This study relies on a number of sources, at the core of which there are published legislative documents, publicism, as well as materials from meetings of party organizations and party committees of a number of Leningrad universities deposited in the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documents of St. Petersburg. Considering the course of the campaign and its consequences for higher education, the author came to the conclusion that even a formal adherence to the requirements set for the teaching community and students meant significant changes in scientific and academic work. Textbooks and course programs were revised, the scientific work of teachers was subject to strict regulation, and they themselves could be under fire of severe criticism and condemnation. Thus, the program led to the fact that, the correct idea of standing up for national achievements in this field and preserving the memory of the greatest representatives of Russian scientific community was often replaced by scientific revisionism. It clearly demonstrated not only danger, but also that aggressive state intervention and the ideologization of the history of science and technology were fighting a losing battle.

Key words: history of education, history of science and technology, combating cosmopolitanism, Kalinin Polytechnic Institute, Leningrad State University

For Reference: Sidorchuk, I. V. (2020). “Combating bourgeois pseudoscience”: a campaign for national priorities in science and technology and Soviet higher education institutions. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 43 (1), 354-365. doi: 10.32744/pse.2020.1.25

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Information about the author:

Ilya V. Sidorchuk (Russia, Saint-Petersburg) - PhD in Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences. St. Petersburg State University. E-mail: i.sidorchuk@spbu.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-9760-2443