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Characteristics of students’ academic adaptation at different levels of education in Russia

Introduction. The relevance of the study is conditioned by the need to find effective ways of adaptation due to changing conditions of education and personality development, as well as to inclusion of students with various educational needs and capabilities in the educational process, including those with disabilities (health limitations) and chronic diseases. Currently, there is no conceptual and systematic elaboration of theoretical provisions and experimental research in the field of academic adaptation.

Materials and methods. The materials of the study are articles from Russian periodicals. The research method is theoretical analysis of the problem of academic adaptation at different levels of education.

Results of the study. Major studies of academic adaptation in Russia are focused on the problems of determining its criteria, age specificity, factors and conditions for successful adaptation, the development of a diagnostic tool, its characteristics in inclusive education, etc. The specificity of academic adaptation at different levels of education is associated with gaining experience of adaptation and psychological development of a student. The determinants of academic adaptation differ depending on the educational level. In the conditions of preschool education the determinants are games and the experience of interaction with peers and adults, psychosomatic development; in the conditions of primary education the determinants are communication skills, educational motivation, interaction with the teacher; in the conditions of secondary education the determinants are correspondence of the educational process organization with characteristics and capabilities of students, interaction with peers and adults; in the conditions of special professional education the determinants are psychophysiological characteristics of students, personality factors (academic motivation, self-reflection), interpersonal factors.

Discussion and conclusion. Analysis of academic adaptation as a multicomponent phenomenon makes it possible to develop means of its optimization and to create conditions for children and adults’ academic success in the educational system. Within the context of modern education it is important to study students’ academic adaptation in an inclusive educational environment, the development of the concept of academic adaptation as a process of successive change of its foundations, factors and mechanisms at different educational levels.

Keywords: academic adaptation, determinants of academic adaptation, levels of education, inclusion, disabilities, diagnostic tools

For Reference: Shamionov, R. M., & Grinina, E. S. (2021). Characteristics of students’ academic adaptation at different levels of education in Russia. Perspektivy nauki i obrazovania – Perspectives of Science and Education, 52 (4), 370-380. doi: 10.32744/pse.2021.4.24

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Information about the authors:

Rail M. Shamionov (Russia, Saratov) - Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Social Psychology of Education and Development. Saratov State University. E-mail: shamionov@mail.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8358-597X

Elena S. Grinina (Russia, Saratov) - PhD in Psychological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Rehabilitation Technology Department. State Autonomous Institution of Saratov region “Adaptation and rehabilitation centre for disabled people”. Saratov State University. E-mail: elena-grinina@yandex.ru. ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8766-9668

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